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Pre-pregnancy counselling provides women with information concerning health of a woman and what to expect during pregnancy, facilitating an informed decision regarding matters related to reproduction. This counselling should include the appropriateness for a diet and folic acid supplementation, the important role of avoidance of smoking, exercise, alcohol and screening for infectious and genetic disorders. Folic acid supplementation prior to the conception and during the first trimester helps prevent the majority of neural tube defects. Appropriate health education regarding effects of smoke on pregnancy outcomes and more broadly offer a referral to the smoking cessation services.
Prenatal care, also referred as antenatal care, is a type of preventive healthcare that aims to provide regularized health care to treat and prevent the potential health problems throughout the course of a pregnancy and to promote healthy lifestyles that benefit the mother and the child mutually. It is an essential component of maternal, reproductive, newborn and child health continuum of care. During this imperative prenatal period, related complications due to pre-eclampsia, health care providers provide training on healthy pregnancy related behaviors, breastfeeding and family planning; refer persuade the use of a skilled birth attendant, mothers to advanced care when essential; persuade the use of a skilled birth attendant, and minimize the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Labour is the very active process of delivering a fetus and is characterized by the regular, painful uterine contractions which also increases in frequency and intensity.
Epidural is the common labour analgesia commonly employed for the pain relief. Progression in the field of labour analgesia has advanced from the days of ether and chloroform in 1847 to the present day practice of wide-ranging labour pain management by using evidence-based medicine. Newer advances including the introduction of newer techniques like a combined spinal epidurals, low-dose epidurals facilitating ambulation, pharmacological advances like introduction of newer local anaesthetics, introduction of remifentanil for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia, introduction of newer local anaesthetics and adjuvants like ropivacaine and levobupivacaine, use of inhalational agents like sevoflourane for patient-controlled inhalational analgesia using special vaporizers, all have revolutionized the practice of pain management into labouring parturients.
Cesarean delivery (C-section) is a surgical procedure that is used for delivering a baby through incisions(cut) in the abdomen and the uterus. It takes longer time to recover from C-section than from the vaginal birth. It is usually performed under the regional anaesthetic where the lower part of the body is numbed. This section is often becomes necessary when the method of vaginal delivery increases the risk to the mother and the newborn
High risk pregnancy includes existing health conditions such as HIV, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, HIV, obesity, multiple pregnancies. Expectant women of high risk require management by the physician which helps to ensure the best health outcomes. Women with high risk pregnancy should be counselled to eat gain appropriate weight, nutritious foods, and avoid potentially harmful substances (alcohol, smoking). Vitamins, supplemental iron, and medicines will help to enhance the health of the mother and the newborns.